"Those who only understand physics don't really understand physics either." loosely based on Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (1742-1799)
The Problem of Quantum Physics
Outside world: Of course there is reasonably an observation-independent reality - however only as long as it is not observed. Therefore, the observer cannot be ignored.
In the quantum realm "observation" is at the same time disturbance by interaction. You either know the exact place or the exact impulse of the quantum, but never both at the same time. Thus our knowledge about the quanta remains "uncertain".
The "uncertainty" is not one of the quanta, but inevitably one of our knowledge about quanta. Superposition, on the other hand, is a term for not knowing the state of an object in a closed system - e.g. whether a cat there is dead or alive. A simple self-evident fact. One only likes to speak mysteriously. (Only in so far as the superposition beyond the not-knowing is still something real, quantum computers are possible, especially by definitely more than 2 possible states of particles.)
Because a measurement encounters an unknown state, the measurement result is called "random". Dealing with "randomness": one makes a relevant number of measurements and then works with the mean, i.e. with "probabilities".
Some Theory of Science
Like Newton's dynamics, quantum physics is not an invented theory like Einstein's theory of relativity with its freely philosophized objects, but as a pragmatic science an instruction developed from the expertise of its founders on how to deal with the smallest quantifiable units of physics such as electron, photon, field, angular momentum, spin, etc. in an appropriate and purposeful manner. It does not try to "explain" the world with unproven assertions while fixing thinking, but gives physicists proven rules for dealing with certain phenomena. (Speaking of theories has become common only by Einstein's theory).
Classical physics and quantum physics are not opposites, but are applied to different orders of magnitude of physical research and thus complement each other.
Quantum physics knows the phenomenon of entanglement of particles with a common origin, whereby afterwards spatially separated particles react momentarily as a whole. Likewise, all matter/energy involved in the so called "Big Bang" was entangled with each other. To differentiate both entanglements I called the one of the big bang "super-entanglement". Since the time this happened, everything strives to restore this unity, but this is opposed by the cosmic centrifugal force, which was also generated at the big bang and which drives everything apart.
Newton called the force of entanglement "centripetal force", because it makes everything strive towards a center. We call it gravitational force or gravity. Its seat is bound to the particles and belongs to their nature as a further unlosable property. Its action is without a time factor, as Newton already saw it, because otherwise bodies would be attracted to places where no one else is anymore. The proof of gravity is omnipresent - in the sky (space) as well as on earth.
Gravity distributes itself uniformly in space, so that the sum of the force is always the same at any radius around a body (conservation of energy). However, its dilution and thus its range is limited by Planck's quantum of action, which contributes to the ever faster expansion of the cosmos, i.e. the original cosmic centrifugal force (conservation of energy) asserts itself more and more until it reaches its maximum speed. Just by observing the conservation of energy, the observations become comprehensible.
The particle entanglement
The particles were also already entangled with each other before their joint emission, but also acquired common properties such as their counter-rotating spin, which is probably something like a spin equilibrium that wants to be maintained - perhaps as far as gravity reaches or depending on their strength.
Definition of the Cosmos
Where the two primal forces - gravity and cosmic centrifugal force - are in balance, permanent celestial bodies have formed with exactly such paths. We know them as suns, planetary systems, globular clusters, galaxies and galaxy clusters - our cosmos in fact. Definition: A cosmos is a whole ordered by a common event, which reacts together. Seeing the things separately is only a useful habit of seeing on earth, which proves nothing in cosmology.
A New Cosmology
The new order created by the common event big bang, better be called primal leap - because from nothing comes nothing - is a cosmos within the universe, which itself exists without limits in space and time. There can be innumerable cosmoses in the universe, even if we can never know it. However, we can think it. The cosmoses come and go but the universe/the energy remains. This new view of the origin of the cosmos also explains the behavior of entangled quanta and therefore cannot be surpassed. It is the core of the Heilbronn interpretation of quantum physics.
* Conservation of Energy
In order for physics to be and remain a science, the basic principle of the conservation of energy must always be observed, which was first formulated by the Heilbronn doctor Robert Mayer, against strong resistance from the physicists, and whom I would like to remind you of with this Heilbronn interpretation of quantum physics. The basic principle of the conservation of energy applies not only to the formation of the cosmos and the course of its expansion, but also to the formation of its atoms. They are the result of the energy of the primal jump or that of supernovae. Nuclear explosions mirror these events. In its own way everything is also present like the primal leap through the existence of the background radiation. You just have to find out and know how to interpret it.
As Newton did not want to speculate about the "centripetal force" (gravity) in order to preserve scientificity - "hypotheses non fingo" - quantum physicists do not allow themselves to speculate about things that are not verifiable in principle, e.g. about the path of a particle between measurements. Therefore the quantum leap is for them also the lower limit of the knowable, the primal leap would be the upper one. Then reason must help further, e.g. with the law of conservation of energy, with logic anyway. But reason is always necessary.
From the Primal Leap to the Quantum Leap
Nature makes leaps. This is its creational principle through which something new comes into being every time, which is something completely different from the sum of its parts; that's why the new cannot simply derived from them. Thus, all beginnings inevitably lie in the dark and can only be accepted. Not being able to "explain" them with familiar things (so as not to have to rethink) is not a counterargument, but is inherent in the nature of things. Furthermore, it is part of the dignity of man to endure open questions and not always to want to take refuge in a belief right away.
Unity of Physics
The laws of quanta control the world in both the smallest and the largest ways. We don't need a second theory for matter and cosmos. Quantum physics is sufficient; however its application to outer space, for example, is being developed just now. In this way, the unity of physics can be restored. All activities in physics would have to be subordinated to this aim. Today, however, it is still far too often a matter of being apparently right.
© Helmut Hille 2022, Heilbronn/Germany (translation by Martha Greiner-Jetha)
Member of Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG), Work Group Philosophy of Physics
Philosophizing is the perpetual struggle for the freedom of the mind
to the final text from mid-July 2023